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Landscapes Along The Waterways

From Macao To Guangzhou


(west passage)



Traveling Between Macao and Canton

​Part 1




For many years after the first foreign merchants came to Canton, they were not permitted to remain after their vessels were despatched, but were obliged to leave in them. In the case of the great Companies such as the English East India and the Dutch, it gradually became a great inconvenience. These, therefore, retired to Macao, where in time residences were specially built for their accommodation. The removal from Canton to Macao took place at the close of the north-east monsoon, simultaneously with the commencement of the dead season, when the market would have been cleared of teas and few or no vessels at Whampoa. Macao possesses a delightful climate, completely within the sea breezes, and is beautifully situated; it moreover offers in its entirety perhaps a unique specimen of Western colonies in the Eastern world as they existed 250 years ago — in its forts, churches, and walls, its convent, senate-house, and the extensive, solidly built, private residences.


The Bay of Macao, looking eastward, is strikingly like that of Naples. The fine houses which border it are protected by a broad esplanade, supported by a sea-wall with a low parapet. The view from it is very fine across the outer harbour in a north-east direction to the islands of Lantoa 1 and Lintin 2; to the north lie the ‘Nine Islands 3,’ and south-westerly is the anchorage called ‘Taypa 4,’ between the islands of Montanha 5 to the west and Cabreta 6 to the east. This anchorage is about three miles from Macao, and (as well as the two islands) is under the sovereignty of the Portuguese. West of Macao is the inner harbour, which separates it from the island called the ‘Lappa 7.’ On it in the early days the Portuguese built villas and laid out gardens, but they were subsequently abandoned from an inability to protect them effectually from Chinese marauders and pirates, and in 1825 a few vestiges of them only remained.

The departure from Canton of the Factory was annually quite a circumstance. From fifteen to twenty ‘chop-boats’ were drawn up at the Company’s landing, of which some were converted into sleeping apartments, for which their high decks and capacious holds, which were floored off, afforded ample space. On either side were large windows, with curtains and movable shutters, for protection against rain. Others were appropriated to several milch cows and their keepers, for supplies for the journey, as well as books and papers of value. The members of the Factory, rarely fewer than twenty to twenty-five, occupied the others with their personal servants; and, what with Compradore’s 8 men, cooks, and coolies, the entire number was not less than 250 to 300 persons, including the boats’ crews. On the arrival of the Linguist with the Government permit, the fleet set sail amidst the beating of gongs, burning fire-crackers and small squares of red paper, as a propitiation to the gods presiding over rivers and streams. The boats always took the Macao Passage 9, as it was called, which is a broad stream branching off from the Pearl River, about a half mile westward of the factories and running due south; consequently they passed the Factories 10, affording altogether a fine sight. The distance to Macao, taking the curves of the river, is about 120 miles, and the journey averages three or four days. As the return to Canton formed also an event in local life, being at Macao when the Company left in October 1831, I was glad to have the opportunity of availing myself of an invitation from Mr. Majoribanks, the then ‘Chief’, to go up with them.


Lantau Island, Hong Kong


Lingding Island, Shenzhen

Jiuzhou Island, Zhuhai

Taipa, Macao

Hengqin, Zhuhai

Taipa Grande, Macao

Wanzai, Zhuhai


Pidgeon English word for native agent for foreign trading, originated from the Portuguese word ‘comprador‘ for ‘buyer.’


Instead of located in Macao, it was actually located to the south of Shamian Island, Guangzhou, was only named ‘Macao Passage’ by foreign merchants.


Referring to the 'Thirteen Factories / Thirteen Hongs '.

自從第一批外商來到廣州的那天起,這麼多年來他們都不允許逗留,而必須跟隨他們的船隻離去。這樣一來對於諸如英國東印度公司、荷蘭東印度公司的大公司而言就變得極為不便。而澳門有為這些人建造的臨時居所,於是他們便退居此地。每年東北季候風結束之時,他們便由廣州至澳門遷移。此時也正是商業淡季,市面上的茶葉已經運送完畢,在黃埔的船隻也逐漸減少。澳門的氣候宜人,海風陣陣,景色優美,250年來它更是西方在東方殖民地中的獨特的典範 - 它有砲台、教堂、城牆,它有女修道院、議會,還有寬敞、堅固的私宅。  


澳門灣從東邊驟眼望去與那不勒斯非常相似。精緻的房屋邊上有濱海綠地保護,外面又有一道矮牆築成的海堤。由外港往東北望去是大嶼山和伶仃島,向北是九洲島,西南則是氹仔碇泊所,其西邊是大橫琴島,東邊是雞頸山 1。這個碇泊所距離澳門約三海里,與其他兩個島一起由葡萄牙統治。澳門的西邊是內港,對岸是將軍山,早期葡萄牙人曾在此建造過別墅與花園,但後來由於無力抵抗中國的海盜和強盜而遺棄,到1825年便只剩下一些遺跡了。  


每年從廣州商館離開的時候都可謂是大場面。有十五到二十隻駁船停靠在公司碼頭,有些甲板高船艙寬闊的船便被改造成睡艙,地板也被拆除以拓寬空間。船的兩邊有大窗,有窗簾和遮風擋雨的百葉窗。其他的船則為奶牛和牛主騰出位置,以供應旅途所需,而同時也會載有書籍和檔案。商館的人員,一般起碼有二十至二十五人,則與他們的僕人一起乘坐其他的船隻,還有買辦人員、廚師和苦力,加上船員總人數不下250至300人。在通事(linguist)帶來政府的許可後,船隊便在鑼鼓聲中啟航,一邊放炮仗一邊燒紅紙,以祭祀江河諸神。船隊一般取道“澳門水道 2”(Macao Passage),這是一條寬闊的珠江南向支流,距離商館 約半海里。當他們駛過商館時浩浩蕩蕩,甚是壯觀。算上曲折的河道,到澳門一共約120 海里,通常需要三至四天。而從澳門返航至廣州也是本地生活中的一件大事。1841年10月公司離開澳門時,我有幸受當時的“主管”馬治平先生(Mr. Majoribanks)邀請一同北上前往。







Selected from 節選並翻譯自

The ‘Fan Kwae’ at Canton Before Treaty Days, 1825-1844, by an Old Resident

London, Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. 1882

September 9, 1838

​Part 1




In entering the river of Hong-Shang we had to use our oars, for there was not a breath of wind. Daylight began to fail and the approach of night grieved me as much as if it had been an unlooked for or unusual event. I was chagrined at the idea of passing, without seeing it, a country where there was so much to excite my imagination ; and whenever I perceived the tall dark outline of a tower or a pagoda standing out against the sky, I was vexed at not being able to sketch it, and almost cursed the slow progress of time. At last day broke as we cast anchor before the Custom House of Hong-Shang. I could scarcely see it, yet I had my album in my hand ready to sketch it as soon as it should become sufficiently visible. My companions, wearied out, or indifferent, were still asleep long after I had commenced operations. By degrees the noise of awakening multitudes became more distinct, and boats began to arrive in great numbers. By and bye many pushed off from the shore, and so great was the movement in the part of the river where we were stationed, that I took it for the market-place of the city, which stretches itself on both sides of the river. The most important part, situated on the left bank, is built on a hill, crowned by a fine tall pagoda.


The houses of the city in general have only one story, the windows of which open sometimes on elegant balconies, and sometimes on terraces covered with flowers. This love of flowers gives me a high opinion of the manners and the domestic happiness of the inhabitants. Many of the houses have sentences inscribed on their entablature, or on a stone placed between two windows. My ignorance of the language has been to me a cause of much regret, for nothing would have interested me more than to be able to read this mark of the character of the inhabitant. This usage would be impracticable anywhere but in China, since everywhere else the character undergoes a certain modification ; and I know no man in Europe who would be willing in advanced life thus to exhibit and to parade his juvenile opinions. Many of the little balconies have columns and trellises painted in different colours. We Europeans think that there is no architectural beauty where other colours than white are introduced, and I suspect that the custom of painting everything even to the roof would not please us much ; nevertheless, there results from this diversity of colours a certain gaiety which gives to the Chinese towns much more animation than ours.

駛進香山河後一點風都沒有,於是我們就要用起我們的槳。日光逐漸消逝,夜幕的降臨似乎是一場意外或異常事件一樣令我感傷。我很失望,因為經過了一個能處處激發我想像力的鄉村,但又無法看清。當我感覺到天空中有一個又高又黑的塔的輪廓,又沒法把它畫下來的時候真的令人煩惱,差點開始咒罵時間怎麼過得如此緩慢。終於在破曉時分,我們在香山稅館下碇。我雖然勉強能看清,但手中早已拿起畫本,準備著等一切清晰可見的時候畫下來。我那些疲倦又或是漠不關心的同伴們還在熟睡,而我已經在作畫了。漸漸地,人群醒來的聲音逐漸清晰,大量的船隻也開始抵達。 不久以後,船隻開始駛離岸邊,我們所停泊的河段十分熱鬧,我想這裡就是這座縣城的市集,從河的兩岸一路延伸開去。重點是,在河的左岸,有一座高高的寶塔聳立於山丘上。  



Selected from 節選並翻譯自

Sketches of China and the Chinese

London, Tilt and Bogue, 1842

September 9, 1838

​Part 2




The Dutch East India Company followed the same programme to and from Macao. The members of this Company were never so numerous as that of the English. There were usually two gentlemen to manage all affairs, with three or four ‘writers.’


Under various pretexts, other foreign merchants managed to remain at Canton the year out. One was that their import cargo not having been sold, consequently the tea and other merchandise which they had shipped was unpaid for. This, if not considered reasonable, at all events had the effect of causing the authorities to overlook their presence, and gradually that article of the ‘old regulations’ 1 became a dead letter.


Having seen the manner in which the great Companies went between Canton and Macao, it will be curious to follow the  ‘private’ individual and the formalities that had to be gone through (which, however, applied to those Companies as well). A linguist was sent for, to whom was given the name and nationality of the person requiring a permit for Macao, and he would take them to the Hong merchants. Three or four of these would then petition the Hoppo that the request might be granted. Amongst these merchants must be included the one who ‘secured’ the foreigner in question. On the third day after, the linguist would reappear at the Factory and give notice that the luggage, &c. must be examined by an officer from the Hoppo’s office, which having been done, the permit would be given to the head boatman, and on the fourth day the boat could proceed on her journey. It must not be supposed that these old ‘government regulations’ were never infringed, for in my own case, in 1830 2, being ill, I asked Houqua to use his influence that I might leave at once, and in twenty-four hours my papers were ready and I was off. The boats in which foreigners travelled to and from Macao (except occasionally if a large party, when they took chop-boats) acquired the name of ‘inside fast boats’. They were large and commodious, with cabins in which one could stand up, broad raised seats on two sides, covered with clean matting, on which one slept. They were furnished with green Venetian blinds. In the centre of the cabin stood the dining-table, and over it a lamp was suspended. The accommodation was ample for four persons. Abaft the main cabin was a smaller one, for the servants and cook; then came the stern-sheets, occupied by the helmsman and two or three men to work the main-sheet. On one quarter was the kitchen; forward of the principal cabin was a flush deck to the bows; there stood the foremast, and ten to twelve oars could be used. The crew consisted of twelve or fifteen men, always alert, hard-working, and good-natured. The trip down the river or up was particularly enjoyable; the respite from office duties imparted a new sensation; and, if made in the south-west monsoon, nothing so exhilarating after the close hot Factories as this breeze fresh from the sea. The entire cost of the trip was for the boat eighty dollars, and the invariable ‘cumsha 3’, ten or fifteen more, according to one’s humour after a quick or tedious passage.


The official papers were four in number, to which on the particular occasion now referred to a fifth was added.


The regulations that limits the activities of the foreigners in China.



Note: According to what the author described later, the journey started on the sixteenth day of the forth month, and was one or two months after the surrender of opiums. It matches the incident of the surrender of opium in the Thirteen Hongs by Lin Zexu in 1839. Therefore the date here must have had been mistaken, which should be 1839 instead of 1830.


Cumsha  means a present.


No. 1

The petition from the Hong merchants applying for the pass to Macao, which read thus: —

Whereas it is our duty to petition for permits for Macao, it now appears that the barbarian merchant, H , having clearly set forth that on a former year he came to Canton to trade, now wishes to visit Macao. Not daring to resort to illegal ways, he has begged us to entreat the favour of an official passport being granted to him, that he may submit it for inspection at the several stations on the route. Such being the barbarian’s wishes, we petition that he may be officially  permitted to proceed.


Memorandum. — The barbarian merchant H —is provided with one sword and one gun for the protection of his person, as well as with clothing and cooking utensils.



Houqua  Mouqua

Pwankeiqua  Pwanhoqua


Taou-Kwang: 19th year,

4th moon, 15th sun.


No. 2

The Hoppo's answer : —

The request is granted. He may go to Macao. This must be shown at the several custom-houses on the route, and on arrival at Macao it is to be surrendered to the collector there.


(Seal of the Hoppo.)


Note. — To be countersigned at the West Fort and at Che-Nae.


No. 3


This pass is to be countersigned along the whole route to Macao. Yu, by Imperial decree Acting Hoppo for the Port of Canton. Raised two degrees ! Whereas it is evident that, to ensure safety and uninterrupted travelling between Canton and Macao, barbarians should be furnished with passports for exhibition at the custom-houses on the way, that they may be allowed to proceed, and the time of arrival and departure at each is to be noted on them. All difficulty thus removed, and no excuse for loitering or wandering, how can disturbances arise? On arrival at Macao the pass must be delivered to the custom-house there, to be returned to this office and cancelled. It is highly important that they (to whose hands it shall come) attend to this injunction.


Memorandum. — One boat, containing one barbarian named H— who in the 4th moon, 16th sun, starts from the capital.


(Seal and date.)



Countersigned at the


West Fort       16th, Arrived evening, Left evening.

Che-Nae        17th, Arrived Daylight, Left daylight.

Hiang-Shan  18th, Arrived Midnight, Left daylight.

Macao            18th, Arrived Evening.

(I fill in the dates with arrivals and departures as they took place.)


No. 4


Yu [as above].


Whereas, by the will of the Great Emperor, he controls all matters relating to the trade of the Outer Ocean, now grants the merchant H—, by means of the boat belonging to Yip-Paou-Chang, liberty to proceed with fine teas, &c, to Macao for sale. Herein are registered the articles he takes

with him on which the duties have been collected, viz. : —


        63 catties* of tea, in five boxes.

        4 large silver spoons.

        8 small silver spoons.

        45 catties of oil, in two jars

        10 catties pictures.

        36 catties preserves, in one box.

        27 catties salt fish, in one package.

        612 catties wooden ware, in eight boxes.

        30 pairs of shoes, in one box.

        270 catties of iron ware, in three boxes.

        18  catties hams, in one package.

        1 wooden table.

        27 catties of white sugar, in one package.

        3 small oil paintings.


The barbarian merchant H——  also takes the following personal stores : —


        524 bottles of foreign wine.

        30 foreign knives, with 30 forks.

        30 foreign glass cups and bottles (decanters).

        1 trunk of woollen clothing.

        2 boxes of shaving-head implements (razors).

        250 catties of foreign clothing.

        30 catties fragrant water.

        200 catties lead.

        70 catties divers eatables.

        1 glass mirror.

        1 large glass lamp.

        20 catties of foreign crockery.

        10 catties copper ware.

        30 catties candles.

        10 pieces of foreign fragrant soap.

        1 foreign gun and 1 sword.

        1 hat and 1 spyglass.

        270 catties of foreign white paper.

        5 pictures with glass fronts.

        40 catties of rolled tobacco-leaves (cheroots)

        1 foreign white woollen blanket


* A catty is 1 1/3 pounds English.


As my departure for Macao on this occasion took place a month or two after the surrender of the opium, unusual strictness was observed for fear that some of the nine foreign merchants selected by the ‘Kinchae’ 4 as hostages might escape. The following extra document was therefore issued: —


The Imperial Commissioner.


No. 5


An extra permit granted by the officer appointed by the Imperial Commissioner, occasioned by the opium affair, and stationed in front of the foreign Factories, to take cognisance of all foreigners arriving at and leaving Canton. Le, waiting preferment, specially appointed, now reports to the Kwang-Chow-Hee*. It having been brought to my knowledge that the boat owned by Chang, having on board the barbarian H —, leaves this 1 6th sun of the 4th moon for Macao, no delay must take place. Moreover, as neither of ‘the nine’ forbidden to leave are on board, custom-houses will permit her to pass.


No. 196. (Signature of the Kwang-Chow-Hee), and endorsed, ‘To be returned and cancelled.’

*A subordinate officer of the chief magistrate’s department.


The House Compradores were always glad to avail themselves of such an opportunity to send to Macao a lot of ‘Chow-chow’ cargo on their own account, a privilege we never refused. This accounts for the sentence in No. 4 — ‘proceeding to Macao with fine tea for sale’. Whence came the 200 catties (266 pounds) of lead was a mystery to me, but the 270 catties of ‘iron ware’ were iron chests, and 270 catties of foreign white paper certain office books of accounts and stationery, removed from the Canton offices in consequence of the unsettled state of affairs, with a quantity of house stores, &c. The details of everything is peculiarly a Chinese idea, and as similar documents are now no longer issued, and the inside passage to Macao never taken under former circumstances, they are curious in their way. The outside passage, by the way of the Bogue and in splendid steamers, is now the order of the day.



其他外商在各種理由下找到了辦法全年留在廣州。其中一種就是他們進口的貨物還未賣出,因此他們的茶葉和其他商品的貨款還沒付清。這種哪怕是看上去不合理的藉口,無論如何卻讓當局睜一隻眼閉一隻眼,而逐漸地“舊例” 1 中的那項條款就變成了一紙空文。  


看到大公司來往廣州與澳門的情況後,就更想進一步了解“私人”來往所要辦的手續了(然而大公司也要遵循同樣的手續)。先把申請去澳門許可人員的名字和國籍交給一位通事,讓他再交給行館商人。然後三四位行館商人會向粵海關監督請願,才有可能獲批。這三四位行館商人中必須有一位是作為外國申請人的“擔保”人。在第三天,通事會再次來到商館,告知行李等必須接受粵海關衙門官員的檢查,完事後,許可會給到船員的頭目,然後在第四天船隻就可以啟程了。不要以為這些舊的“政府條例”完全不能違反,就我而言,在1830 2 年患病的時候,我問浩官 3 能否以他的影響力讓我立即離開,二十四小時後我的證件就已經就緒並立即出發。外國人來往澳門乘坐的船叫做“內河快船”(如果人數多的話就乘坐駁船)。船都很大很舒適,船艙可容人站立,兩邊還有高起的寬闊座位,上面鋪好了席子供人睡覺。船上也裝有綠色的百葉窗。船艙中央有一張餐桌,上面懸掛著一盞燈。 足夠四個人在上面住宿。主艙之後是一個小一點的艙,留給僕人和廚師。船尾則住著舵手和兩三名操作主帆的人。廚房佔據了船的四分之一。主艙前則是平甲板,直達船頭。這裏豎立著前桅杆,並配有十到十二支船槳。船員共有十二至十五名,他們時刻警惕、勤勞善良。河道上的往返程都特別愉快,卸下辦公室的擔子讓人有了一種全新的感官。而且,如果是乘著西南季候風前行,在熱火朝天的商館忙完後,這種剛從海上吹來的清風就無與倫比了。航程的總花費是80元,而賞錢也是不能免,通常是十或者十五元多,看航程是快捷順利還是沈悶冗長而定。  官方文件有四份,特殊情況情況下可能增加到5份。 

譯註: 指政府對於規範外國人在華活動的條例。  




譯註:  伍秉鑑 









浩官 茂官 潘啟官 潘海官 


















西砲台   十六號晚抵達,晚上離去 

紫坭       十七號日間抵達,日間離去 

香山       十八號凌晨抵達,日間離去 

澳門       十八號晚上抵達











茶葉 六十三斤 分五箱 

大銀匙 四隻 

小銀匙 八隻 

油 四十五斤 分兩罐 

圖畫 十斤 

蜜餞 三十六斤 一箱 

鹹魚 二十七斤 一袋 

木器 六百二十一 分八箱 

鞋 三十雙 一箱 

鐵器 二百七十斤 分三箱 

火腿 十八斤 一袋 

木桌 一張 

白糖 二十七斤 一袋 

小油畫 三幅  




洋酒 五百四十二瓶 

洋刀 三十把 另有叉三十把 


三十隻 毛衣 一箱 

剃頭用具(剃刀) 兩盒 

洋衣 二百五十斤

香水 三十斤 

鉛 二百斤 

潛鳥鳥食 七十斤 

玻璃鏡 一塊 

大玻璃燈 一盞 

洋陶器 二十斤 

銅器 十斤 

蠟燭 三十斤 

洋香皂 十塊 

洋槍 一支 以及劍 一把 

帽 一頂 及 望遠鏡一個 

白色洋紙 二百七十斤 

玻璃鏡框圖畫 五幅 


洋白毛毯 一件 











商館的買辦總是很高興能藉著這個機會把他們自己的“雜貨(Chow-Chow)”運往澳門,我們也沒有拒絕過這種特權。這就是第四份文件中“攜帶上等茶葉前往澳門出售”寫的那些。至於那200斤(266 磅)鉛對我來說則是個迷了。而那270斤的鐵器是鐵箱,270斤白色洋紙是是一般的辦公帳本和文具,從廣州伴奏是因為一些還沒解決的事務和大批的商館存貨等等。詳細登記各樣東西是典型的中國做法,同樣的文件現在也不頒發了,而在此情況下,前往澳門也不再走奇特的內河航道。現在的話走的是外洋航道,乘坐華麗的蒸汽船取路虎門來往。

Selected from 節選並翻譯自

Sketches of China and the Chinese

London, Tilt and Bogue, 1842

September 9, 1838

​Part 3




After passing the hill, behind which is the Custom House of Tchy-nay, we entered into a wide part of the river ; and almost immediately I perceived, surrounded by fields of rice and a magnificent clump of trees, a strange-looking city, quite different from any we had yet seen. The roofs of the houses were flat and the gables built in fantastic forms. I regretted not being able to approach and to examine it in detail. We proceeded onwards, and everywhere most charming landscapes met our view : green hills crowned by little pagodas, which seemed placed there expressly to look down upon the infinite number of boats which pass before them, for the movement is incessant.


As we advanced we passed every instant some new canal, the entrance to which was so attractive that we regretted our not being able to enter it ; and new bushes of bamboos, taller and more elegant than any we had yet seen.


Presently the hills disappear, the canal enlarges, it ramifies and receives the waters of many little rivers. Then we perceive in these valleys before which we pass so rapidly, towns, and villages, and bridges of unequal arches, and charming villas under flourishing trees.


We passed also a triumphal arch, built of beautiful white stone, and I wondered how it was that the dampness did not cover it with microscopic vegetation, which spoils the effect of our buildings, and sooner or later destroys them.


Close by there was a mandarin's residence, which affords a perfect idea of the better sort of houses of the Chinese, for they are all alike, each having three wings, separated by two interior courts. The intermediate building is always occupied by the women. Each roof is surmounted by a very pretty ornament, a piece of luxury unknown with us.


I am unwilling to dwell too long on the beauties of the grand canal, and yet it is necessary to say something of all this crowd of islands, in the midst of which are planted so many pagodas, differing from each other both in date and in the style of their architecture : some simple and square, with three or four stories, not unlike some of our village steeples, only each of the stories is marked by a little blue projection, turned up at the extremity ; others are hexagon, octagon, with four, six, seven stories. They are all beautifully situated, appearing as it were to start from the water, amidst fine masses of trees, either alone or close by the house of some mandarin. Nor must I forget those veils of bamboos, of such brilliant colours, which cover the water in every direction, and bend to every breath of air.

After many windings, we found ourselves once more in one of the arms of the river, and the bustle which everywhere prevailed announced our approach to Canton. Wherever we turned the same landscape met our view — hills covered with kiosques, branching pines, and blue roofed houses.


We passed close by a temple, built on a little jetty, which was reached by a stair, descending into the river. It appeared to be a place of some reputation. We saw more than one boat stop at it, and more than one Chinese carry thither offerings. After passing this temple, the activity of the inhabitants became more apparent, and I began to suspect that even all that I had heard of their bustle and activity fell far short of the reality. Leaving on the left an island 1, with a little battlemented fort, in the middle of which is a pagoda, we at last caught sight of the mountains behind Canton, and arrived at the entrance to the faubourg Honan 2. We were immediately surrounded by boats rowed by Europeans, who have only this means of taking a little exercise. We entered the right arm of the river, on which Canton is situated, and I very soon perceived, through a forest of masts, European flags, and afterwards the factories themselves.


The Great King Fort.


Nowadays the north west of Haizhu District.

經過一座山後,我們來到了山後面的紫坭稅館,也來到了更寬闊的水道處。幾乎立刻我就望到了一座被連片的稻田和一大簇樹包圍著的城市,它看上去很怪異,跟我們之前見過的都不太一樣。房子的屋頂都是平的,山牆也是非常的驚奇的樣式。很遺憾我沒辦法靠近去仔細端詳。我們繼續前進,放眼處處盡是迷人的風景: 翠綠的山上點綴著寶塔,似乎建在那裡就是特意為了俯瞰持續不斷來往的千帆萬舟。  













我們駛過一座建在小碼頭上的廟,有樓梯至下河面。它看似是一個非常有名的地方。我們看見不止一隻船停泊於此,不止一個中國人拿著供品向前。過了這座廟後,居民的活動越來越多,我開始懷疑我之前聽到他們的吵雜聲都只是現實的冰山一角。我們駛離左邊的一座小島 1,島上有一個小砲台,中間是一座塔,我們終於看見了廣州城背後的山,來到了市郊的河南 2。我們身邊立即出現一群在划船的歐洲人,他們也只能這樣運動一下了。我們進入了河道右邊的支流,這裡就是廣州城座落的地方,很快我就看到叢林般的旗桿和歐洲國家的旗幟,其背後就是他們的商館了。





Selected from 節選並翻譯自

The ‘Fan Kwae’ at Canton Before Treaty Days, 1825-1844, by an Old Resident

London, Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. 1882

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