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Landscapes Along The Waterways

From Guangzhou To Macao


(east passage)



Thirteen Factories




The word ‘Factory’ was an importation from India, where the commercial establishments of the ‘East India Company’ were so designated, and synonymous with ‘agency.’ It is well to explain this, as it is now being confounded with ‘manufactory.


The space occupied by the foreign community at Canton was about 300 feet from the banks of the Pearl River, eighty miles from Macao, sixty miles from Lintin, forty miles from the Bogue Forts, and ten miles from the Whampoa anchorage. In breadth from east to west it was about 1,000 feet. On it stood the Factories, which comprised the dwellings and places of business of each nation originally under one roof. The line of frontage was uniform, all looking due south. The distinction of new given to one of the two buildings occupied by the ‘Company’ applied to that one which was rebuilt after the great fire of 1822, which destroyed all the others, with a few exceptions, as well as, according to official accounts, ‘12,000 Chinese houses, shops, and temples in the western suburb.’ Each Factory consisted of a succession of buildings, behind one another, separated by narrow spaces or courts, and running north. The front ones were numbered I, those back of them, nearly all of three stories, No. 2, 3, and so on. The least numerous Factories were then in the American Hong, the greatest number were in the Danish and Dutch Hongs, which contained seven and eight respectively.      


The Chinese word ‘Hong’ was applied to any place of business, but was more particularly used to designate the Hongs of the ‘Security Merchants,’ whence Hong Merchants or any foreign Factory in its entirety. It signifies a row of buildings. By the Chinese, the places of business of foreigners were known as ‘Foreign Hongs’ those of the Security Merchants as ‘Foreign Hong Merchants.’


Beginning at the west, stood the Danish Factory adjoining it were Chinese shops in its whole length, forming New China Street, which here intervened, separating it from the Spanish. Next the French, and by its side in its whole length, that of the Hong Merchant Chungqua; Old China Street here came in, and against it was the American, then the Imperial, by its side the Paoushun, next in order the Swedish, the old English, and then the ‘Chow-Chow.’ Now came a small narrow lane, the renowned Hog Lane, most appropriately named. The high walls of the new English Factory bordered the lane, having as next neighbour eastward the Dutch, and next to this stood the Creek Factory. The latter took its name from a small creek, which, running down along the walls of the city, here emptied into the river. Originally this creek formed the ditch of the west side of the city.


The entire number of buildings, therefore, was thirteen. Immediately in their rear, and running east and west, was a long, narrow, but important street, named ‘Thirteen Factory Street’. 


From the front of the new English a long broad terrace projected towards the river, its columns supporting an entablature, whose pediment bore the arms of England with the substitute of ‘Pro Regis et Senatus Angliae’ for ‘Honi soit qui mal y pense.’ The Dutch company (‘Maatschappay’) possessed a similar terrace, with the national arms and motto ‘Je maintiendrai.’ These two, the English and Dutch Companies, were the direct successors of those founded on December 31, 1600, and in 1602 respectively. The English Jack, the Dutch, the United States, and the Spanish flags, were daily, in 1825, hoisted before those respective Factories, and were visible from a great distance. The Spanish flag represented the Philippine Company. The French flag was hoisted on December 13, 1832, after an interval of thirty years; it denoted simply the Canton residence of the Consul, as the trade of that country was insignificant, while the Swedish, Danish, and Imperial (Austrian) direct commerce had ceased, and no other Western nation traded directly with Canton. Portugal was confined in her commercial relations to her own colony of Macao; Russia to Kiachkta. From the port of Cha-po, on the east coast of China, two junks sailed annually to Nagasaki. Siamese vessels would occasionally be seen at Whampoa, when conveying tribute bearers on their way to Pekin, and not far from the Factories was the residence of the Ambassadors.


At the northern extremity of Old China Street, and facing it, stood an extensive and handsomely built series of buildings, in the Chinese style, called the ‘Consoo House’, or ‘Council Hall of the Foreign Factories.’ It contained numerous suites of rooms for receptions and business, with open courtyards, and was always kept in excellent order and cleanliness by the Chinese in charge. It was the property of the Hong merchants collectively, and was maintained by funds appropriated by them for the purpose. When any event bearing upon the foreign trade required it, such as new regulations, or confirming old ones, or a revision of duties, the ‘Tai pans’ or Chiefs of Houses would be invited to meet the Hong merchants and discuss the subject. Any foreigner went if inclined, and would occasionally learn of many official acts, having a bearing upon business, and even upon his daily walks or boat-pulling on the river, which may have come under the notice of the authorities, who would have suggested shorter journeys or the exercise of care from collisions. It was also in the Consoo House that the Hong merchants met, or a committee of them, in the rare cases of bankruptcy or pecuniary difficulties of one of their number, and it was the depository of books of accounts relative thereto, as well as of records of meetings. The entrance to it was by a flight of broad granite steps, through large heavy folding doors of a highly polished and valuable wood. 1  Being a handsome specimen of this style of Chinese architecture, foreign visitors to Canton were taken to see it as one of the sights.


The Factories were the individual property of the Hong merchants, and were hired of them. By law, no women were permitted to enter them, nor were guns, muskets, powder, or military weapons allowed to be brought within the gates. Entrance to the rear Factories was by arched passages running through those in front. The lower floors were occupied by counting-rooms, go-downs, and store-rooms, by the rooms of the Compradore, his assistants, servants and coolies, as well as by a massively built treasury of granite, with iron doors, an essential feature, there being no banks in existence. In front of each treasury was a well-paved open space, with table for scales and weights, the indispensable adjuncts of all money transactions, as receipts and payments were made by weight only, except in some peculiar case. The second floor was devoted to dining and sitting rooms, the third to bedrooms. As almost all were provided with broad verandahs and the buildings put up with care, they were quite comfortable, although in every respect devoid of ornamental work. In front of the middle Factories between Old China Street and Hog Lane ran a broad stone pavement, and this bordered an open space running down to the banks of the river, a distance of about three hundred feet. On the east side it was bounded by the wall of the East India Company's landing place and enclosure, and on the west by the wall in front of the landing and enclosure of Chungqua’s Hong. The Chinese were prohibited from loitering about this ‘Square,’ as it was called. On the corner of Old China Street and the American Hong stood a guard-house with ten or a dozen Chinese soldiers, acting as police to prevent disturbance or annoyance to the ‘foreign devils.’ On the edge of the river, facing the ‘Pow Shun’ and the Creek Hongs were ‘Chop’ houses 2, or branches of the Hoppo’s department, whose duty it was to prevent smuggling, but whose interest it was to aid and facilitate the shipping off of silks (or the landing of cloths) at a considerable reduction from the Imperial tariff. A few pleasant words, accompanied by a fee, would secure a permit for the boat of the ‘Wandering Eagle’ to be allowed to pass all revenue cruisers ‘without molestation’ on her way to Whampoa.


The words Factory and Hong were interchangeable, although not identical. The former, as will have been seen, consisted of dwellings and offices combined. The latter not only contained numerous offices for employés, cooks, messengers, weighmasters, &c., but were of vast extent, and capable of receiving an entire ship's cargo, as well as quantities of teas and silk. When speaking of their own residences, foreigners generally used the word ‘Factories;’ when of a Hong merchant's place of business, the word Hong. The Swedish Factory, however, seemed to enjoy the distinction of going by its Chinese appellation, viz. ‘Suy-Hong.’ 3


I have been thus specific in the description of these world-renowned Factories, as they were subsequently razed to the ground consequent upon Sir Michael Seymour's bombardment of the city of Canton. When last visited the site, nearly thirty-five years after I first took up my residence in them, it was literally unrecognisable. It presented a scene, the desolation of desolation; there remained not one stone upon another! For more than one hundred years they had formed the sole residence of foreigners within the limits of the vast Chinese Empire. The business transacted within their walls was incalculable, and I think I am safe in saying that from the novelty of the life, the social good feeling and unbounded hospitality always mutually existing; from the facility of all dealings with the Chinese who were assigned to transact business with us, together with their proverbial honesty, combined with a sense of perfect security to person and property, scarcely a resident of any lengthened time, in short, any ‘Old Canton’, but finally left them with regret.


In no part of the world could the authorities have exercised a more vigilant care over the personal safety of strangers who of their own free will came to live in the midst of a population whose customs and prejudices were so opposed to everything foreign, and yet the Chinese Government was bound by no treaty obligations to specially provide protection for them. They dwelt at Canton purely on sufferance. Neither Consul nor any other official representative from abroad was directly acknowledged as such, and yet the solicitude of the local government never flagged. In addition to the guards always posted at the corner of the American Hong and Old China Street, others were stationed in various directions in the suburbs frequented by foreigners, in order that any Chinese who might be troublesome could be driven off, or that they could escort back to the factories those who were uncertain of their whereabouts.


During the north-east monsoon fires were quite frequent in the densely populated suburbs lying north of the factories. When they threatened the foreign quarter the Hong merchants, acting in consonance with the known wishes of the Mandarins, would send gangs of armed coolies to assist in the removal to boats provided by them of books, papers, treasure, and personal effects. All strange Chinese would be ruthlessly driven from the Square, and an unobstructed passage to the boats secured. I have witnessed this repeatedly. Should a foreigner get into a disturbance in the street, and it was generally safe to say it was through his own fault, the Chinamen went to the wall. When a mob of many thousand ruffians invaded the Factory Square, as in November 1838, shortly preceding the opium surrender, and with stones and missiles of all sorts drove the foreigners inside their gates, which they were forced to barricade, a not unnatural anxiety prevailed amongst us as to what might be the result. Yet this attack was caused by foreigners, who interfered with the Mandarins while attempting to carry out Government orders.


All foreigners who came to Canton, from the first arrivals, were considered as having no other object than that of commerce. The English and the Dutch made their appearance in the first half of the seventeenth century; successively arrived, the Danes, Swedes, and Austrians (Imperialists). The Spaniards invited the Chinese to their new settlement at Manila for a time, and afterwards they themselves came to the provincial city.


Some amongst these different nationalities, tradition said the Dutch, had red hair, which led the Chinese facetiously to apply the term ‘Red-headed Devils’ ever after to all foreigners alike. They themselves give to the whole of their own race the name of ‘Black Hair’d.’


Siamese teak. 



Any Mandarin or official station was locally known as ‘Chop-house.’


The Chinese name for Sweden is Suy-Kwö,







從西邊起,第一座是丹麥館 ,與之並列等長的是靖遠街(New China Street)上的一排華人商鋪。街對面是西班牙館。接著是法國館,緊挨著它跟它等長的是行商章官劉德章的行館(東生行)。然後到同文街(Old China Street),對面是美國館,然後帝國館,在它旁邊是寶順行,接著依次為瑞典館、舊英國館,然後到“炒炒”館。現在接著就到一條小窄巷,新豆欄巷(Hog Lane),名副其實。巷邊是新英國館的高牆,東邊接連荷蘭館,再接著小溪館。後者取名於一條沿著城牆下流的小河涌,在此匯入江中。原本這條河涌是城西的護城河。  




新英國館前有條長而寬的騎樓延伸向江邊,其柱子支撐著的柱頂山牆上有英格蘭的徽章和一句“為了英格蘭國王和議會(Pro Regis et Senatus Angliae)”,以代替“恬不知恥(Honi soit qui mal y pense)”。荷蘭館(Maatschappay)也有一個類似的騎樓,上面有國家徽章和一句格言“我支持(Je maintiendrai)”。英國和荷蘭這兩家公司,都是直接繼承分別成立於1600年12月31日和1602的舊公司。在1825年,英國旗、荷蘭旗、美國旗和西班牙旗都會每天早上在各自商館升旗,遠遠都能夠看見。西班牙旗代表的是菲律賓公司。法國旗在間歇30年後也於1832年12月13日再度升起,因為這個國家的貿易已經微不足道,所以它的旗幟僅代表在駐廣州法國領事館。而瑞典、丹麥和奧地利帝國的直接貿易已經中止,此外也沒有別的西方國家直接於廣州貿易了。葡萄牙的商業關係則被侷限在自己的殖民地澳門。俄羅斯則到恰克圖。在中國東海岸的港口乍浦,每年都有兩艘船前往長崎。在黃埔偶爾能看見暹羅的船隻,他們通常是往北京進貢的路上,離商館不遠的地方有它節使的駐地。  


在同文街的最北端對面,有一排寬敞漂亮的中式建築,叫做“公所”,或是“洋行會館”。它有很多用作招待和談生意的套房,有露天的庭院,掌管的華人總是打理得非常乾淨企理。它是行商共同擁有的財產,由他們共同出資的基金會打理。任何有關對外貿易的事務都要經其手,例如訂立新例,或是重申舊例、修改稅則的時候,都需要請“大班”即公所所長與行商們會晤洽談相關事宜。任何外國人都可隨意進入,也會偶爾在此了解很多官方法令,例如有關生意的,甚至關於日常散步或在河上划船的,這些活動或許是當局會留意到的,他們也會建議你縮短行程或是活動時要小心衝突。在例如破產或財務困難等的偶發事件時,行商們或者他們的委員會也會在這裡碰頭,帳本和所有的會議紀錄也都存放於此。其入口是一道寬敞的花崗岩台階,然後是兩扇厚重、且打磨得很亮的門,由昂貴的木材 1  製成。作為一座此類中式建築的漂亮典範,來廣州的外國訪客都會被帶來這裡一睹風彩。  


商館都是行商們的私人物業,並且出租給商館。按照法例規定,婦女不得進入商館,槍支彈藥或軍事武器都不得入內。商館前門有拱頂通道通向後門。底層是帳房、貨棧、倉庫,和買辦及其助理、僕人、苦力的房間,因為還沒有銀行,於是這裡還有一個巨大的由花崗岩、鐵門建成的銀庫,這是商館的基本配置。每個銀庫前面由一塊平整的空地,上有擺著天秤和砝碼的桌子,這都是金錢交易必不可少的配置,因為收付款都通過稱重來完成,只有少數例外。二樓則是飯廳和客廳,三樓是睡房。幾乎所有樓房都有細心築建的寬闊走廊,儘管沒有沒有什麼裝飾,但都很舒適。位於中間的商館,也就是同文街和新豆欄街之間的商館前方有一條寬闊的石路,前方則是一片通往江邊的空地,距離大約三百英尺。其東邊是東印度公司卸貨場的圍牆,其西邊則是章官的行號的卸貨場前方的圍牆。華人是被禁止在這個所謂的“廣場”上遊蕩的。在同文街和美國館的街角有一個守衛所,駐有十到十二個中國士兵來防止有人騷擾“番鬼”。在江邊,寶順行和小溪館對面是稅館(Chop-House) 2  或是粵海關的分部,雖然其職責就是打擊走私,但他們的利益所在就是通過大幅降低帝國稅率來協助出口絲綢(或是進口衣物)。幾句美言,再加一筆費用,就可以保證“遊鷹號”船順利通過所有巡船,暢通無阻直達黃埔。  


Factory(商館)和Hong(行號)兩個詞雖不一樣,但是可以通用的。前者如前面說到,包含了住所和辦公室。而後者不僅包含許多職員、廚師、信差、稱重員的辦公室,而且還能容納一艘船的整個貨倉,還有大量的茶葉和絲綢。當談起他們的住所時,外國人通常用“Factory(商館)”一詞,而談及行商經商的地方,則用“Hong(行號)”。而瑞典館看來喜歡用其中文名“瑞行” 3,以顯特別。 















Selected from 節選並翻譯自

The ‘Fan Kwae’ at Canton Before Treaty Days, 1825-1844, by an Old Resident

London, Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. 1882

Nine-Storey Pagodas




Foreigners, on coming up the river to Canton have been attracted by several lofty pagodas, which are met with after entering the Bogue1, as much from the perfect specimens of a peculiar style of Chinese architecture, as from the beauty of the spots on which they are built and their great height and symmetry of form.   Two of the most remarkable stand between the city and Whampoa. The one nearest to Canton is to foreigners known as the Lob Creek Pagoda, from a small branch of the river running by the foot of the eminence on which it stands. The other is the Whampoa Pagoda, and a third stands on a height abreast of the second bar3. From the Five Story Hall, within the city walls, this is distinctly visible, though at a distance of thirty miles.   They are all octangular, of nine storeys, and about 120 feet high, decreasing in circumference as they rise. At the base they are about twenty-four feet in diameter externally. Surrounding each storey on the outside is a cornice. The walls at the base are eight feet thick.   Windows are pierced on the north and south sides between each cornice.   Within there are no divisions by floors, the view is uninterrupted to the apex. Idols are placed in a recess opposite the entrance, where stands a small altar, and besides these objects there is nothing.   The plastered inner walls exhibit innumerable names of foreign visitors, the oldest that I found being 1750.   The Canton Chinese, if inquired of as to the meaning and intention of these pagodas, reply, ‘Belong joss pigeon’, that is to say, they are raised to the Unknown that evil influences may be warded off; very expressive, but vague.   The ones of which I now speak are not ancient monuments, they were built, it is said, during the Ming dynasty, but many exist of great antiquity, amongst which may be named that one on the Min River, a few miles before you arrive at the city of Foo-Chow, where foreign ships anchor, and which gives its name to the place, Pagoda Anchorage.   This one is said to have been constructed during the Sung dynasty, A.D. 967 to 1085.   They are usually built of brick.   We are indebted to the Jesuits, who let nothing escape them of curious or interesting research, for an accurate knowledge of the purposes of these graceful buildings.   In a work entitled ‘De Christiana Expeditione apud Sinas, de Societate Jesu suscepta,’ is the following notice of the building of one of these pagodas. The author was Father Nicholas Trigaultius Belga, commonly called Father Trigault, and is composed of his own and Mathieu Ricci’s notes. It says : — 


At the same period (1583) the inhabitants of Shaou-King-Foo were building at the expense of its Eleven Heens3 one of these towers, which ancient superstition led them to believe brought prosperity upon the whole region. Already the first storey, on which eight others were to be raised, had been erected. It stands on a most lovely spot by the bank of a large and navigable river, on which is the residence of the Viceroy, near to the walls and from which the city is distant about a mile, but the suburbs extend quite out to it, and with the fields, the shrubbery, and the gardens, afford the most delightful spectacle. On the same area they were marking out the ground for a splendid temple after the pagoda should have been built, in which, according to custom, was to be placed a statue of the Governor of the Foo, as a testimony of their gratitude. During the six years of his governorship, he had so ruled as to gain a good name among the literati and people. 


Subsequently, after the Jesuits had built a chapel in the same area with the pagoda, the Father adds, in explanation of the disaffection of many Chinese toward them : — 


Nothing so much vexed them as the false rumour that the tower, which at such great expense and toil was being built, was the work of foreign priests.   This report had no other foundation than that the building of the tower happened to fall at the same time with the erection of our chapel. But this rumour was sufficient to cause them to change the name of the tower, which they had called ‘Flowery,’ to that of ‘Foreign Tower.’


It is also from the works of the Jesuits we first learnt that these pagodas are erected to the spirits of the gods, who were supposed to hover over certain spots of ground, as a propitiatory offering, to insure their protection and assistance in all operations in which the community of those places might be engaged, more particularly with reference to their labours in the field, and that they would ward off pestilence or noxious influences, and all this is expressed in pigeon English in three words, viz., ‘Belong joss pigeon.’

外國人沿江而上進入廣州時,在進入虎門之後,會被幾座高聳的寶塔吸引,是為其奇特的中式建築的完美範本、建築選址的美景、塔高還有外型的對稱。 在府城和黃埔之間有兩座尤為矚目的。最靠近廣州的外國人稱之為磨碟沙涌塔(Lob Creek Pagoda 赤崗塔),得名於流經其山丘下的一條小支流。另一座是黃埔塔(Whampoa Pagoda琶洲塔),還有第三座位於第二道淺灘(Second Bar 1)旁邊山上。儘管在約三十英里外,城內的“五層樓(鎮海樓)”都能清晰看見。他們都是八角形九層建築,約120英尺高,越往上週長越小。從外面量起,底座均約二十四英尺直徑。每一層外圍都有飛檐圍住。底層的牆身約八英尺厚。窗戶開在南北兩邊的上下飛檐之間。 內部則不分樓層,望眼至通樓頂。神像放置於入口對面的小神台上,此外便別無他物。內部石灰牆面上有許多外國訪客的名字,我找到最久遠的是1750年的。如果問起廣東人這些寶塔的意義和用途,只會回答說“Belong joss pigeon(神明的東西)”,也就是說,建給“不可知的的東西”來避邪的。非常有意味,卻又含糊不清。我所提到的這些塔都並非是古代的紀念碑,相傳建於明代,但現存還有很多塔是非常古老的,其中有一座在閩江上,位於福州的幾英里外,許國外國的船隻都在此停泊,因此這裡也起名為“寶塔錨地(Pagoda Anchorage)”。這座寶塔相傳建於公元967-1085年的宋朝。通常由磚砌成。我們得感謝耶穌會,任何好奇和有趣的研究都逃不過他們的手心,了解清楚到這些優雅建築的用途。在一本叫做《基督教遠征中國史》(De Christiana Expeditione apud Sinas, de Societate Jesu suscepta)的著作中,記載了一座塔的建造過程。作者是金尼閣神父(Father Nicholas Trigaultius Belga,通常稱 Father Trigault),書中有他自己和利瑪竇(Mathieu Ricci)的紀錄。上面說: 






最令他們惱火的莫過於有謠言說,他們斥巨資人力建造的塔竟然是外國神父的作品。這個報導毫無根據,只不過我們建造教堂的時間恰好跟塔建造的時間一致。不過這謠言已經足以讓他們將塔的名字從“花塔”改為“番塔” 2。  同樣從耶穌會的著作中,我們首次了解到這些塔是為供奉神明而建,讓神明駕臨於這片土地,確保他們保護和協助此地族群的一切生活運作,尤其是農田勞作,同時驅逐瘟疫和瘴氣。如果用三個洋涇浜英語來說,那就是“Belong joss pigeon(神明的東西)”。


據航海地圖考證,有兩處潮汐淺灘,一處外國人稱之為“First Bar”,即今天黃埔大橋下的大蠔沙,另一處為獅子洋上的“Second Bar”,地圖記載位於現今海鷗島與麻涌之間的獅子洋航段上。文中描述的即為蓮花塔。  




Selected from 節選並翻譯自

Bits Of Old China

London, Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. 1885

Pearl River




It was in the year 1745 that Yung Ching, the third Emperor of the present dynasty*, ordered all foreign trade to be confined to the port of Canton, universally known as Whampoa. Separated by a branch of the river from French Island stands Dane’s Island. These were so named from the privilege that those nationalities originally enjoyed of occupying bankshalls or store-houses upon them, wherein to shelter the crews while smoking ship and overhauling after the desperately long passages they must have made from Europe. All vestiges of those buildings have long since disappeared, but numerous decaying tombstones, half buried beneath earth and weeds, still tell the tale. The regular tea season being over, we found few vessels at Whampoa, and these, as with the ‘Citizen,’ were designated, ‘out of season ships.’ The northern side of the anchorage is formed by the important island of Wang-Po; the river is named the Wang-Po, and the same is applied to the anchorage. The words mean the 'Yellow Anchorage.’ On the island is a large town of many thousand inhabitants, almost all of whom are directly or indirectly connected with the foreign shipping, as compradores, stevedores, blacksmiths, &c.


The Choo, or Pearl River, commonly called the Canton River, presented a vastly different appearance on the 21st February, 1825, from what it did twenty years later. It was then crowded with native vessels, including those immense coasting junks which have now almost entirely disappeared. They then made voyages to the northern and southern ports of China, to the Celebes, Borneo and Java, and to Singapore, as well as to Manila. Long tiers of salt junks lined the shore of the island of Honam; these brought cargoes from Teenpak and places on the coast south-westward of Macao. They were owned by a corporation of salt merchants, who enjoyed a monopoly of the trade, and, to prevent smuggling, a special fleet of cruisers was organised by the local government. The penalties against a clandestine introduction of salt were as severe and more rigorously carried out than even against opium. The merchants were an influential body, as much considered as the Hong merchants, whom they rivalled in wealth. The number of cargo boats from the interior, of passenger boats, floating residences and up-country craft, with Government cruisers and flower boats, was prodigious. To these must be added sampans,1 ferry boats plying to and from Honam, and quantities of barbers’ boats, vendors of every description of food, of clothes, of toys, and what would be called household requirements if in shops on shore; besides boats of fortune-tellers and of theatrical performers-in short, imagine a city afloat, and it conveys a very correct idea of the incessant movement, the subdued noises, the life and gaiety of the river.


But now, an additional interest was added to this floating scene, from its being the first days of the Chinese new year. The noise of gongs, as a compliment to the meeting of mutual acquaintances or when one boat or junk arrived or set sail, was startling; and finally, the red and gilt patches of paper, on which words or sentences were written in large black characters, appropriate to the opening of the new year, formed another conspicuous feature on every kind of craft. Ships’ boats were usually furnished with paddles, which were always brought into use from below the Dutch Folly to the landing place in front of the factories. The oars of our boat being therefore replaced by them, with skill and patience, after two hours from Whampoa, we landed at ‘Jackass Point,’ so memorable in the days of old Canton. 

It was Qian Long Emperor instead. 


Sampan, a small skiff or boat.



珠江,通常又稱為省河,與二十年後相比,在1825年2月21日這天展現出一幅大不相同的樣貌。那時候江上擠滿了本地的船隻,包括沿岸航行中的大型中式帆船,現在已經幾乎消失殆盡了。當時它們穿梭於中國大江南北的港口,去到西里伯斯、婆羅洲和爪哇,去新加坡,還有馬尼拉。河南岸邊一長列鹽船排列開, 把貨物從電白和澳門往西南沿岸方向去的各個地方運送過來。鹽商團體擁有這些船隻,他們壟斷了貿易,同時為了打擊走私,當地政府還組織了一支特遣的巡邏隊。販運私鹽的處罰相當嚴厲,甚至比打擊鴉片還要嚴格。鹽商們是非常有影響力的團體,跟行商地位相當,財富也可與之匹敵。從內陸來的貨船、客船、疍家船、北上船隻、政府巡船和花艇的數量相當可觀。還加上舢舨1,來往河南的渡船,和許多剃頭艇,還有船隻販賣食物、衣物和玩具,也就是岸上商店說的日用品。此外還有算命和演戲劇的船艇 - 簡言之,想像一下一個浮在水上的城市,給人一個非常準確的印象:經久不息的活動、熙熙攘攘的吵鬧聲、有生命力與歡樂的江河。  


但今天是農曆大年初一,在這浮城景象之上還另有一番趣味。嚇人一跳的鑼鼓聲是熟人相見的祝賀,又或是在迎送船隻靠岸或啟航,最後加上特地為了開年而在灑金的紅紙上用大黑字寫的揮春,組成另一番船艇矚目的特色。商船的駁艇都配有短槳,通常行駛到海珠砲台下便拿出來替換掉櫓,直到在商館前靠岸。從黃埔啟程後,經過兩小時的嫻熟和耐心,我們在“驢角(Jackass Point)2”靠岸。這便是我對老廣州難以忘懷的日子。





Selected from 節選並翻譯自

The ‘Fan Kwae’ at Canton Before Treaty Days, 1825-1844, by an Old Resident

London, Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. 1882

Old Canton Has Fallen




The seizure of the opium in its consequences was the feature in the breaking up of the exclusive conditions of foreign trade at Canton, as it had existed since 1720. The peculiar conditions also of social life were doomed, as was that perfect and wonderful organisation, the Co-Hong. 


On August 10, 1841, Sir Henry Pottinger arrived at Macao as Her Majesty’s sole plenipotentiary and Minister Extraordinary. Negotiations with the Mandarins were carried on simultaneously with the capture of cities on the coast The material losses and destruction of, life to the Chinese were incalculable, particularly through suicide by those helpless people. An English officer who was present at the taking of Cha-Po in May 1842 wrote to a friend at Macao that on landing, about 3,500 strong, under cover of the men-of-war, the most terrible enormities were committed. He then goes on to say; ‘After the city had been captured, I entered more than a hundred houses, and in each there were not less than two, and in many eight, persons found dead. They were the bodies of mothers and daughters who had committed suicide from a dread of becoming prisoners; 1,600 dead were buried after the battle, of which more than one-half were Tartar soldiers, who in despair of repelling the enemy, and preferring death to defeat, had nearly all destroyed themselves. Is not this a splendid exhibition of patriotism?’


The losses of the English on this occasion by the official accounts were one colonel, one sergeant, and seven men killed, seven officers and forty-seven men wounded ; and so on to the end, the pigmy against the giant ! 


At length the treaty of Nanking, in which the Chinese consented to pay an indemnity of $21,000,000, was signed off that city, on board of H.M.S. ‘Cornwallis,’ on August 29, 1842, by his Excellency Sir Henry Pottinger, the Imperial Commissioners Ke-Ying and E-Leepoo, and New-Keen, the Viceroy of Keang-Nan and Keang-Se. And thus concluded the first European war with China, one of the most unjust ever waged by one nation against another. 


The next treaty was that of the United States, which was signed at the village of Mong-Ha (Macao) on July 3, 1844, by Mr. Caleb Cushing and Ke-Ying. Together they were the ‘knell, the shroud, the mattock, and the grave’ of Old Canton. 


The Chinese had not looked with satisfaction upon the concessions they had been obliged to make to an overwhelming military and naval force, which had caused them the loss of myriads of lives, often under circumstances of great atrocity, of unheard-of suffering, as well as of many millions of dollars independently of the war indemnity. The ordeal was a terrible one; but they gained by it the, to them, unenvied privilege of falling in with Western ideas. Encouraged by the confidence inspired by so great a. privilege, they now contract for loans of money, they build vessels of war on European models, and drill their soldiers in foreign tactics; they provide themselves with Western arms of precision — in short, they are putting on their armour. They are in full career of a diplomacy in which Ambassadors or Ministers — that is to say, ‘spies upon one another’ — watch over the interests of their respective countries. With the sword at their throat they have become members of what is facetiously called the ‘Brotherhood’ of Nations! 



1841年8月10日,女王陛下的特命全權大臣亨利·璞鼎查爵士(Sir Henry Pottinger)來到澳門。在攻佔沿海城市的同時,與官員的談判也在同時繼續進行。財產的損失,以及對中國人生活的摧毀是無可估量的,尤其是那些孤立無援的人民選擇自盡。一位參與1842年5月佔領乍浦的英國官員給澳門的朋友寫信說到,3500名強壯的臥底士兵在登陸時犯下了滔天的罪行。他接著說道:“在攻佔程式後,我進入了一百多間住宅,每一戶都至少有兩人,而且多數情況是是八人,已經死去。很多都是怕被俘虜而自盡的母親和女兒的屍體。在戰爭後掩埋了1600具屍體,過半是清軍,他們和敵人拼死抗爭,寧死不屈,幾乎全部自盡。這難道不是愛國的強烈表現嗎?




最後在1842年8月29日,《南京條約》在停泊該城的皇家“康華麗號”(H.M.S. Cornwallis)上簽署,中國人同意賠款2100萬元。簽署人有亨利·璞鼎查爵士(Sir Henry Pottinger)閣下,帝國的欽差大臣耆英、伊里布和兩江總督牛鑑。中國和歐洲的第一次戰爭由此結束,這是一個國家對另一個國家實行最不公義的戰爭之一。  


接下一個條約是與美國的,於1844年7月3日,在澳門望廈村由凱萊布·顧盛先生(Caleb Cushing)和耆英簽署。它們合起來就是老廣州的“喪鐘、裹屍布、掘墓鋤和墳墓”。  


中國人對輸給佔優勢的海陸軍而被迫作出的讓步並不滿意,他們不僅經常在無比的暴行、前所未聞的苦難下犧牲了無數的生命,還有額外於戰爭的數百萬美元賠款。這種磨難是可怕的。儘管他們並不羨慕,但他們也從接受西方思想的“權利”中獲得了些東西。他們受到這種“偉大權利”的鼓舞,現開始簽約借款,按照歐洲的模型去建造戰艦,以外國的戰術來操練軍隊。他們用西方精良的武器來裝備自己 —— 簡言之,他們正在開始武裝自己。對於那些為自己的國家打算盤,或者說“互相刺探”的各國大使或大臣們,他們也開始實施全面的外交手段。刀架在了脖子上,他們已經變成了那些可笑的“兄弟”國的一份子。  

Selected from 節選並翻譯自

The ‘Fan Kwae’ at Canton Before Treaty Days, 1825-1844, by an Old Resident

London, Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. 1882

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